Starfinder SRD >Classes >

Technomancer

To the uninitiated, magic and technology are completely unrelated, but you know there are more correlations between the two than most suspect. Magic and technology are just tools, and when combined into one discipline, called technomancy, they can be far more powerful than one or the other on its own. You utilize tech to empower, harness, and manipulate magic, and you wield magic to augment, control, and modify technology. You are an expert at hacking the underlying structure of the universe itself, bending the laws of science and nature to your will. Your technomancy—which is gained from scientific study and experimentation—manipulates the physical world, weaves illusions, allows you to peer through time and space, and if necessary, can blast a foe into atoms.

Hit Points: 5

Stamina Points: 5 + Constitution modifier

Key Ability Score: Your Intelligence determines your spellcasting ability, the saving throw DCs of your spells, and the number of bonus spells you can cast per day, so Intelligence is your key ability score. Also, a high Dexterity score can help you fire your weapons more accurately and dodge incoming attacks.

Class Skills: Computers (Int), Engineering (Int), Life Science (Int), Mysticism (Wis), Physical Science (Int), Piloting (Dex), Profession (Cha, Int, or Wis), Sleight of Hand (Dex)

Skill Ranks per Level: 4 + Intelligence Modifier

Proficiencies: Armor-light; Weapons-basic melee weapons, small arms

Table 4–10: Technomancer
Class Level Base Attack Bonus Fort Save Bonus Ref Save Bonus Will Save Bonus Class Features Spells Per Day (by spell level)
1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th
1st +0 +0 +0 +2 Spell cache 2
2nd +1 +0 +0 +3 Magic hack 2
3rd +2 +1 +1 +3 Spell focus, techlore +1, weapon specialization 3
4th +3 +1 +1 +4 3 2
5th +3 +1 +1 +4 Magic hack 4 2
6th +4 +2 +2 +5 Cache capacitor 1, techlore +2 4 3
7th +5 +2 +2 +5 4 3 2
8th +6 +2 +2 +6 Magic hack 4 4 2
9th +6 +3 +3 +6 Techlore +3 5 4 3
10th +7 +3 +3 +7 5 4 3 2
11th +8 +3 +3 +7 Magic hack 5 4 4 2
12th +9 +4 +4 +8 Cache capacitor 2, techlore +4 5 5 4 3
13th +9 +4 +4 +8 5 5 4 3 2
14th +10 +4 +4 +9 Magic hack 5 5 4 4 2
15th +11 +5 +5 +9 Techlore +5 5 5 5 4 3
16th +12 +5 +5 +10 5 5 5 4 3 2
17th +12 +5 +5 +10 Magic hack 5 5 5 4 4 2
18th +13 +6 +6 +11 Cache capacitor 3, techlore +6 5 5 5 5 4 3
19th +14 +6 +6 +11 Resolve attunement 5 5 5 5 5 4
20th +15 +6 +6 +12 Fuse spells, magic hack 5 5 5 5 5 5

Class Features

Spells

Table 4–11: Technomancer Bonus Spells
Int Score Bonus Spells Per Day (by spell level)
0 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th
1–11
12–13 1
14–15 1 1
16–17 1 1 1
18–19 1 1 1 1
20–21 2 1 1 1 1
22–23 2 2 1 1 1 1
24–25 2 2 2 1 1 1
26–27 2 2 2 2 1 1
28–29 3 2 2 2 2 1
30–31 3 3 2 2 2 2
Table 4–12: Technomancer Spells Known
Class Spells Known (by spell level) Level
0 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th
1st 4 2
2nd 5 3
3rd 6 4
4th 6 4 2
5th 6 4 3
6th 6 4 4
7th 6 5 4 2
8th 6 5 4 3
9th 6 5 4 4
10th 6 5 5 4 2
11th 6 6 5 4 3
12th 6 6 5 4 4
13th 6 6 5 5 4 2
14th 6 6 6 5 4 3
15th 6 6 6 5 4 4
16th 6 6 6 5 5 4 2
17th 6 6 6 6 5 4 3
18th 6 6 6 6 5 4 4
19th 6 6 6 6 5 5 4
20th 6 6 6 6 6 5 5

You cast spells drawn from the technomancer spell list. To learn or cast a spell, you must have an Intelligence score equal to at least 10 + the spell’s level. The Difficulty Class for a saving throw against your spell is 10 + the spell’s level + your Intelligence modifier.

You can cast only a certain number of spells of each spell level per day. Your number of spells per day is given on Table 4–10: Technomancer. In addition, you receive bonus spells per day if you have an Intelligence modifier of +1 or higher, as shown on Table 4–11: Technomancer Bonus Spells—note that you only receive these bonus spells once you can cast spells of that level normally. You can also cast 0-level spells. These spells are cast like any other spell, but there is no limit to how many 0-level spells you can cast each day.

Your selection of spells is limited. You begin play knowing four 0-level spells and two 1st-level spells of your choice. At each new technomancer level, you learn one or more new spells, as indicated on Table 4–12: Technomancer Spells Known. Unlike spells per day, the number of spells you know isn’t affected by your Intelligence modifier.

Every time you gain a level, you can swap out one spell you already know and learn a single new spell of the same level in its place. In effect, you lose the old spell in exchange for the new one. You must choose whether or not to swap the spell at the same time you gain new spells known for the level.

You can cast any technomancer spell you know at any time, assuming you have not yet used up your allotment of spells per day for the spell’s level. You can also cast a spell using a higher-level spell slot. For instance, if you want to cast a 1st-level spell but have used up all your 1st-level spells for the day, you can use a spell from a 2nd-level slot instead if you have one.

You can also decipher magical inscriptions that would otherwise be unintelligible or, as a full action, identify any spells encoded in a spell gem. This does not normally invoke the magic contained within, although it may do so in the case of a Cursed or trapped spell gem.

Spell Cache (Su) 1st Level

As the culmination of your early study of the fundamental forces of the galaxy, you have created a spell cache that allows you to store and access spells. Your spell cache could be a device such as a handheld computer or technological implant; an item such as a ring or staff; or a symbol such as a brand, tattoo, or other permanent modification to your body. While you don’t need your spell cache to cast your spells, once per day, you can activate your spell cache to cast any one spell you know and are capable of casting, even if you’ve expended all your spell slots for that spell’s level.

If your spell cache is damaged, it is restored to full Hit Points the next time you prepare spells. If the spell cache is lost or destroyed, you can replace it after 1 week with a special ritual that takes 8 hours to complete.

Magic Hack 2nd Level

You have carefully studied the forces that define magic and can manipulate them. You learn your first magic hack at 2nd level, and you learn an additional magic hack every 3 levels thereafter. When casting a spell, you can apply no more than one magic hack that affects the attributes of a spell (such as distant spell or extended spell). If a magic hack allows a saving throw to resist its effects, the DC is equal to 10 + half your technomancer level + your Intelligence modifier. The list of magic hacks appears starting on page 120.

Spell Focus 3rd Level

You gain Spell Focus as a bonus feat.

Techlore (Ex) 3rd Level

You rewire your mind to give you greater insight into the nature of magic and technology. You gain a +1 insight bonus to Computers and Mysticism checks. This bonus increases by 1 at 6th level and every 3 levels thereafter.

Weapon Specialization (Ex) 3rd Level

You gain the Weapon Specialization feat as a bonus feat for each weapon type this class grants you proficiency with.

Cache Capacitor (Su) 6th Level

You expand your spell cache into a cache capacitor. As part of regaining your spells each day, you can cast a single spell into your spell cache and have it affect you continuously for 24 hours. The cache capacitor can hold any of the following spells: detect radiation, disguise self, keen senses, or unseen servant. You must know a spell to store it in your cache capacitor. When you cast the spell into your cache capacitor, you expend the spell slot normally and make any decisions required for that spell, but the duration doesn’t expire for 24 hours. If the spell in your cache capacitor is dispelled or dismissed, you can spend 5 minutes of uninterrupted concentration to reestablish it, keeping the same decisions you made when you cast it, and gaining whatever duration the spell had remaining. You can’t exchange the stored spell for another spell until you again regains your spells.

At 12th level, your cache capacitor gains a second slot that can hold darkvision, lesser resistant armor , life bubble, or spider climb.

At 18th level, your cache capacitor gains a third slot that can hold arcane sight, flight (spell level 3rd or lower), see invisibility, or tongues.

Resolve Attunement (Ex) 19th Level

You recover Resolve Points when you use powerful magic. Each time you cast a 6th-level spell, you regain 1 Resolve Point, up to your normal maximum. This applies only to spells you cast using your normal 6th-level spell slots, not to those you cast using magic items or other methods such as fuse spells.

Fuse Spells (Ex) 20th Level

You can combine lower-level spell slots to cast higher-level spells. As part of casting a spell, you can spend 1 Resolve Point to exchange a number of unused spell slots for a single spell slot of a higher level; this expends the lower-level spell slots. Add up the levels of the expended slots to determine which higher level of spell you can cast (maximum 6th). For instance, you could exchange three 1st-level slots to cast a 3rd-level spell, or you could exchange two 3rd-level slots to cast a 6th-level spell. If you combine spell slots to cast a 6th-level spell, it doesn’t count as such for resolve attunement.

Furthermore, you can spend 2 Resolve Points to combine two 6th-level spell slots to cast wish.

Magic Hacks

You learn your first magic hack at 2nd level and an additional hack every 3 levels thereafter. Magic hacks require you to be a certain level and are organized accordingly.

2nd Level

You must be 2nd level or higher to choose these magic hacks.

Countertech (Su)

As a reaction when you take damage from an attack by a technological weapon or source within medium range that specifically targets you, you can expend an unused spell slot to disrupt the attack. With a spell slot of 1st to 5th level, you can counter an attack from a technological weapon whose item level is equal to or less than the level of the expended spell slot × 3, to a maximum of your caster level. 6th-level spell slots can counter any weapon with a level equal to or less than your caster level. For example, at 2nd level, you could expend a 1st-level spell slot to counter an attack from a 1st- or 2nd-level weapon. To successfully counter the attack, you must roll a countertech check (1d20 + your caster level) with a DC equal to 11 + the weapon’s level. If the countertech check succeeds, the attack deals half damage. If the countertech check fails, the attack deals normal damage. This magic hack only affects attacks that target you directly; you cannot use countertech against attacks that target an area or that target another person.

Empowered Weapon (Su)

As a move action, you can expend an unused spell slot to reconfigure and enhance a weapon you’re wielding. Until the start of your next turn, your attacks with the enhanced weapon gain a bonus to attack rolls equal to the level of the spell slot you expended. In addition, your attacks with that weapon deal 1d6 additional damage per level of the expended spell slot. This damage is of the same type the weapon normally deals.

Energize Spell (Ex)

Once per day as a move action, you can use a battery or a weapon’s power cell to power your spellcasting, enabling you to cast one spell you know without using a spell slot. This expends 20 charges per spell level from the battery or power cell and requires you to touch the battery, power cell, or weapon. You must cast the spell before the start of your next turn, or the charges are wasted with no effect.

Fabricate Tech (Sp)

As a full action, you can expend an unused spell slot to temporarily construct a piece of technological gear from raw magic. You can create any single technological item with a level equal to or less than the level of the expended spell slot × 3, to a maximum of your caster level. The item appears in your hands or in an adjacent square. You can use fuse spells with this magic hack. The size of the item cannot exceed 10 bulk or Medium size, and the quality of the item is average. Treat this as a spell of the same level as the expended spell slot. For example, at 4th level, you could expend a 1st-level spell slot to fabricate an item of up to 3rd level, or you could expend a 2nd-level spell slot to fabricate an item of up to 4th level. The item persists for a number of minutes equal to your technomancer level. At the end of this duration, the item disappears. You can’t create armor, weapons, magic items, or items with limited uses or charges (such as batteries, drugs, or fuel) with this hack.

Harmful Spells (Ex)

When you cast an instantaneous spell that deals damage, you can increase the spell’s damage by half your technomancer level. This increased damage applies to all creatures damaged by an area spell, but for spells that target multiple creatures with multiple rays or other attacks (such as magic missile), the increased damage applies only to a single ray or missile. This increased damage doesn’t apply to ongoing damage from the spell (such as bleed or burn). This magic hack doesn’t increase ability damage or other spell effects, only damage to Stamina Points or Hit Points.

Quick Scan (Su)

As a standard action, you can get a general sense of what information is stored on drives or other digital storage media. You must pass your hand in the air near the data source, but don’t have to touch it or connect to it. The information you get is very general, such as “financial records,” “military records,” or “spells.” Getting detailed information requires interfacing with the data more directly. If you attempt a quick scan on a creature that stores its memories in a digital medium—to get a sense of the memories stored in a robot, for example—the target can attempt a Will save to negate the scan and prevent you from trying against it again for 24 hours.

Robot Influence (Ex)

You can affect constructs, robots, and other creatures that have the technological subtype with your mind-affecting spells, even if they’re mindless or normally immune to such effects. However, they receive a +2 bonus to their Will saves against your mind-affecting spells.

Selective Targeting (Ex)

When you cast an instantaneous spell with an area effect, you can shape the spell so it doesn’t affect one of your allies. Choose one 5-foot square within the spell’s area to be unaffected by the spell. At 5th level, you can spend 1 Resolve Point to exclude any number of squares with this ability.

Spell Countermeasures (Ex)

You gain a +2 bonus to saving throws against spells and other magical effects.

Technomantic Proficiency (Ex)

As a standard action, you can spend 1 Resolve Point to temporarily learn how to use a weapon in combat. Choose a single weapon; you gain proficiency with it (and any identical weapon) for a number of minutes equal to your class level. Each round you use the weapon reduces this magic hack’s duration by 1 minute. For example, at 4th level, you could gain proficiency with corona laser rifles for 4 minutes. If you fire such a weapon for 2 rounds, you remain proficient with it for 2 more minutes.

5th Level

You must be 5th level or higher to choose these magic hacks.

Charging Jolt (Su)

As a move action, you can expend an unused spell slot to refill charges in a weapon’s power cell. This requires you to touch the weapon or its power cell. The power cell regains 10 charges per spell level, up to its capacity. You can also use this ability to jump-start or short out an electronic device, allowing you to attempt an Engineering check to disable a device with a bonus equal to double the level of the spell you expended.

Debug Spell (Ex)

Any piece of code has bugs, but you can turn the bugs in your spellcode into features. After rolling damage for an instantaneous spell that deals Hit Point damage, you can spend 1 Resolve Point to reroll one die with a result of 1. At 11th level, you can reroll up to two dice with a result of 1, and at 17th level, you can reroll up to three dice with a result of 1. For example, if you were 17th level and cast disintegrate, you could spend 1 Resolve Point to reroll up to three dice that rolled 1s, after rolling and seeing how many 1s you rolled.

Distant Spell (Ex)

When you cast a spell with a range of close, medium, or long, you can spend 1 Resolve Point to double its range. Spells whose ranges are not defined by distance, as well as spells whose ranges are not close, medium, or long, do not benefit from this magic hack. If the spell affects an area, doubling its range doesn’t alter the size of its area.

Extended Spell (Ex)

When you cast a spell, you can spend 1 Resolve Point to double its duration. This has no effect on spells with a duration of concentration, instantaneous, 1 round or less, or permanent, nor can it increase a spell’s duration to more than 24 hours.

Fabricate Arms (Su)

As a full action, you can expend an unused spell slot to temporarily construct a technological weapon or suit of armor out of raw magic. You can create one suit of armor or weapon with a level equal to or less than the level of the expended spell slot × 3, to a maximum of your caster level. The item appears in your hands, on your person, or in an adjacent square. You can use fuse spells with this magic hack. A weapon can’t be larger than two-handed, and the size of the item can’t exceed 10 bulk. The quality of the item is average for its type. Treat this as a spell of the same level as the expended spell slot. For example, at 10th level, you could expend a 3rd-level spell slot to fabricate a weapon of 9th level or lower, or expend a 4th-level spell slot to fabricate a suit of armor of 10th level or lower. The armor or weapon persists for a number of rounds equal to your technomancer level. At the end of this duration, the item disappears. You are proficient with (but not specialized in) any weapons you create with this ability. You can’t create magic items, weapons made from a special material, or weapons that are expended with use (such as arrows, grenades, or missiles) with this magic hack.

Magic Negation (Sp)

As a standard action, you can spend 1 RP to temporarily suppress magic, as if using dispel magic. Choose either an ongoing spell or a magic item within 30 feet of you. The magical effects of the spell or magic item are suppressed for 1d4 rounds, and then they return. If the spell’s level is higher than you can cast or the item’s caster level is greater than yours, you can’t suppress it. If you target a spell affecting a creature, the creature can attempt a Will save to stop you from suppressing the spell.

Spell Grenade (Sp)

You can spend 1 Resolve Point to store a spell with a range of touch in a grenade, allowing you to affect a target within the grenade’s blast radius with the spell. Casting a spell with spell grenade uses the spell’s standard casting time, and throwing the spell grenade is a standard action. You must throw the grenade before the end of your next turn, or the spell is wasted. You are considered proficient with the grenade for this attack. Choose a single target within the grenade’s blast radius; that target is affected by the spell as if you had successfully touched it. The grenade goes off as normal, with all of its usual effects within its blast radius. If you miss the targeted intersection with the grenade, you must choose a target within the grenade’s new blast radius. If there are no suitable targets within the grenade’s blast radius, the spell is wasted. Spells whose ranges are not touch don’t benefit from this magic hack.

8th Level

You must be 8th level or higher to choose these magic hacks.

Diviner’s Tap (Su)

You can hack a computer to set up magical surveillance. This takes 10 minutes and requires a successful Computers check against the device’s DC. If you fail, you can’t try again on the same device. On a success, your tap lasts for a number of days equal to your caster level. You can program your tap either to give you general information about user activity on the device or to receive a mental alarm when a user accesses or transmits data about a specific topic (getting an idea of the information found). For instance, a user might hold a video call to talk about your exploits. If you chose to receive general information, you might know that a video call took place but not the call’s topic. If you chose to have the tap receive an alarm when the topic is you, you’d get the gist of the conversation (but not a complete transcript). Setting up a new diviner’s tap ends the duration of any previous one still in effect.

Flash Teleport (Sp)

As a move action, you can spend 1 Resolve Point to teleport up to 30 feet. You must have line of sight to your destination. This movement doesn’t provoke attacks of opportunity.

Mental Mark (Su)

When an enemy fails a Will save against one of your technomancer spells, it takes a –2 penalty to saving throws and AC for 1 round. When an enemy succeeds at a Will save against one of your technomancer spells, it takes a –1 penalty to saving throws against your spells for 1 round. A creature can take only one penalty from a mental mark at a time.

Spellshot (Sp)

You can cast an area spell with a casting time of 1 standard action or less through a ranged weapon, allowing you to use the weapon’s range rather than the spell’s range. You must target a single creature with your attack, and the spell’s area is centered on that creature, or originates at the creature’s location for a cone or line effect (oriented in whichever direction you choose), even if the spell would normally be centered on or originate from a point. You can fire the weapon as part of the standard action to cast the spell. You must fire the weapon during the round that the casting is completed, or the spell is wasted. If the attack misses, the spell is wasted. Spells with an emanation effect that would be centered on you don’t benefit from this magic hack.

Tech Countermeasures (Su)

As a move action, you can spend 1 Resolve Point to make it more difficult for enemies to target you with technological weapons for 1 round. Until the start of your next turn, as a reaction just before an enemy attacks you with a technological weapon, you can force that enemy to roll the attack twice and take the lower result; if the weapon allows a Reflex save instead of requiring an attack roll, you instead gain the benefit of evasion (as the operative’s class feature) against the attack. This magic hack has no effect on spells that target you or on weapons or attacks that are not technological in nature.

Widened Spell (Ex)

When you cast a spell with a burst, emanation, or spread, you can spend 2 Resolve Points to double its radius. For instance, a spell with a 30-foot burst would have a 60-foot burst instead. Spells that don’t have an area of one of these three types are not affected by this magic hack.

8th Level

You must be 11th level or higher to choose these magic hacks.

Countertech Sentinel (Su)

You can spend 1 Resolve Point to use your countertech magic hack to counter a direct attack against an ally within 15 feet. You can’t use countertech sentinel against attacks that target an area. You must have the countertech magic hack to choose this magic hack.

Eternal Spell (Ex)

Choose one 1st-level spell you know from the list of technomancer spells. You can cast it at will, as though it were a 0-level spell. It still counts as one of your 1st-level spells known, not one of your 0-level spells known. You can choose a 1st-level spell from a source other than the Core Rulebook with the GM’s permission.

Reboot Mind (Su)

You can free someone from magical mental control or conditions. As a standard action, you can spend 1 Resolve Point and touch a willing creature. This restarts the subject’s brain, ending all mind-affecting effects affecting it, as well as all conditions that could be removed by greater remove condition that were imparted on the creature by mind-affecting effects, but the subject becomes stunned until the end of its next turn. Once you reboot a mind, you can’t use this ability again for 24 hours.

You can attempt to reboot the mind of an ally who is unwilling due to the influence of a mind-affecting effect. In this case, the ally can attempt a new saving throw against the effect at the same DC. If she succeeds, the ally can allow her mind to be rebooted, but if she fails, you waste the expended Resolve Point and action.

You can use this ability to reboot your own mind. If you’re unable to take actions, you can reboot your mind without spending actions, but it must be the first thing you do on your turn, and you are stunned until the end of your next turn.

Seeking Shot (Su)

As a standard action, you can spend 1 Resolve Point to fire a single shot from a ranged weapon at a target known to you within range. The shot travels to the target, even around corners. Only an unavoidable obstacle or the limit of the weapon’s range prevents the shot from reaching the target. This ability negates cover and concealment modifiers, but otherwise the attack is rolled normally.

14th Level

You must be 14th level or higher to choose these magic hacks.

Phase Shot (Su)

As a standard action, you can spend 1 Resolve Point to fire a single shot from a ranged weapon at a target known to you within range. The shot travels straight to the target, passing through any nonmagical barrier in its way, ignoring hardness and Hit Points (any magical barrier, such as a wall of force, stops the shot). This ability negates cover and concealment modifiers, but otherwise the attack is rolled normally.

Quickened Spell (Ex)

You can cast a spell as a move action. You can spend 2 Resolve Points to cast a quickened 0-level spell or 4 Resolve Points to cast a quickened 1st-level spell. You can quicken only spells with a casting time of 1 full action or shorter. At 16th level, you can spend 6 Resolve Points to cast a quickened 2nd-level spell.

Rain of Fire (Su)

Once per day as a full action, you can spend 2 Resolve Points to shoot a ranged weapon at multiple targets within range; the maximum number of targets is equal to half your technomancer level or the number of shots in your weapon, whichever is lower. Each attack uses your highest attack bonus, and each enemy can be targeted only by a single shot.

Spell Library (Ex)

You gain one extra spell known for each level of spell you can cast. You must choose the new spells when you gain this magic hack. If you gain access to a higher level of spell after choosing this hack, you gain one extra spell known for that spell level.

Technomancer Class Builds

Battlemage

Theme: Mercenary

Your sorcery is a tool of war, and you fuse it with high-tech weapons.

Ability Scores

Intelligence is your most important ability score because it enhances your spells and abilities, Constitution helps you stay alive, and Strength makes it easier for you to carry heavy weapons.

Magic Hacks

  • Empowered weapon (2nd)
  • Fabricate arms (5th)
  • Phase shot (14th)
  • Seeking shot (11th)
  • Spellshot (8th)

Feats

Skills

Corporate Techmage

Theme: Icon

You work for an important corporation, and when they need to get something done, they call on you.

Ability Scores

Intelligence is your most important ability score because it enhances your spells and abilities, and Dexterity increase your chances of not getting shot.

Magic Hacks

  • Fabricate tech (2nd)
  • Seeking shot (11th)
  • Distant Spell (5th)
  • Spell library (14th)
  • Diviner’s tap (8th)

Feats

Skills

Research Scientist

Theme: Scholar

You use your sorcery to study all the strange things in the universe, and you need to prepare yourself for any danger.

Ability Scores

Intelligence is your most important ability score because it enhances your spells, your abilities, and many of your skills, and Constitution will help you survive.

Magic Hacks

  • Countertech (2nd)
  • Countertech sentinel (11th)
  • Magic negation (5th)
  • Rain of fire (14th)
  • Tech countermeasures (8th)

Feats

Skills

Thaumaturge

Theme: Scholar

You have devoted your life to the study of magic in all its forms, but you don’t shy away from technology.

Ability Scores

Intelligence is your highest ability score because it enhances your spells and abilities, and Dexterity will allow you to hit more often with spells that require ranged attack rolls.

Magic Hacks

  • Harmful Spells (2nd)
  • Eternal Spell (11th)
  • Debug Spell (5th)
  • Quickened Spell (14th)
  • Mental Mark (8th)

Feats

Skills